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翻译精练讲评(1)

有时候,生活会给你当头一棒,但请不要气馁!--- 史蒂夫·乔布斯原文:For the most part, the world runs on the Gregorian calendar, with 365 days, or 12 months in a year, and leap years to boot.1 The year ends on December 31 and begins on January 1, New Year’s Day.But there

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本文摘要:有时候,生活会给你当头一棒,但请不要气馁!--- 史蒂夫·乔布斯原文:For the most part, the world runs on the Gregorian calendar, with 365 days, or 12 months in a year, and leap years to boot.1 The year ends on December 31 and begins on January 1, New Year’s Day.But there

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有时候,生活会给你当头一棒,但请不要气馁!--- 史蒂夫·乔布斯原文:For the most part, the world runs on the Gregorian calendar, with 365 days, or 12 months in a year, and leap years to boot.1 The year ends on December 31 and begins on January 1, New Year’s Day.But there are several cultures that also celebrate2 New Year’s Day later in the year. These cultures follow lunar, solar, and other hybrid calendars to tell time3.Chinese New YearAlso called the Spring Festival or Lunar New Year, Chinese New Year signifies the beginning of the spring harvest season4. Red envelopes filled with money are presented to family and friends, and typical sweet treats are enjoyed by all.5 Colourful dragons and lantern displays can be seen around the world on this day.(122 words)原译:世界上的大部门国家和地域接纳公历,一年有 365 天,12 个月,循环往复。每年竣事于12月 31 日,开始于 1 月 1 日,即新年。然而也有一些文化在一年中的其他时间庆祝新年。

这些文化使用夏历、太阳历或其他混淆历法来计时。中国新年中国新年,又称春节或夏历新年,意味着春天收获季节的开始。

人们向亲朋挚友送塞上钱的红包,大家一起享用传统甜食。这一天,在世界各地都可以看到多姿多彩的舞龙演出和灯展。

(泉源:《英语世界》) 解说:1. For the most part, the world runs on the Gregorian calendar, with 365 days, or 12 months in a year, and leap years to boot.for the most part = in general; on the whole; mostly or usually 主要地,在大多数情况下,大要上,总的来说,一般而言。在本句中,for the most part 的翻译可以和主语 the world 做融合处置惩罚:世界上大部门国家和地域。

这句话中的run 的意思是“运行,运转”,on 是“based on”内里的 on,表现“以、凭、靠某一方法、原则或系统”:You use on to introduce the method, principle, or system which is used to do something. 如:… a television that we bought on credit two months ago …我们两个月前赊购的电视机They want all groups to be treated on an equal basis.他们希望所有团体都能获得一视同仁的看待。Gregorian calendar 格雷果里历(由教皇格雷果里十三世提倡,至今通用的历法):System now in general use of arranging the months in the year and the days in the month, introduced by Pope Gregory ⅩⅢ (1502 – 85)Gregorian calendar 的前身是 Julian calendar 儒略历:The solar calendar introduced by Julius Caesar in Rome in 46 B.C., having a year of 12 months and 365 days and a leap year of 366 days every fourth year. It was eventually replaced by the Gregorian calendar.文中 the world runs on the Gregorian calendar 直译就是“世界是依照格雷果里历运行的”,汉语内里固然不会怎么表达,我们一般表述为“...接纳某种历法”,进而可以将原句主干部门直译为:世界上大多数国家和地域都是接纳格雷果里历。

这里需要稍微注意的是,Gregorian calendar(格雷果里历)其实就是我们通常所说的阳历或公历,将其翻译成“阳历”或“公历”更容易被读者接受,不外更好的处置惩罚方法是加个说明——(即我们通常所说的“阳历”或“公历”)。之所以要加上字眼“我们通常所说的”,是因为这些历法称谓之间还是有细微区此外,包罗“阳历”和“公历”、“夏历”和“阴历”之间,好比,我们可以说“夏历新年”,一般不说“阴历新年”,详细细节这里就不做探究了。with 365 days, or 12 months in a year, and leap years to boot,这一部门是介词短语作状语,对 Gregorian calendar 作进一步增补说明。

本句最难的部门或许是:and leap years to boot,原译将其翻译成“循环往复”,似乎很通顺,看不出什么破绽。leap 既可以做动词,也可以作名词,表现“跳跃”的意思,好比:look before you leap (谚语)慎思尔后行:consider the possible consequences before taking action(leap 作动词)by/in leaps and bounds 很是迅速:very rapidly(leap 作名词)Her health is improving by leaps and bounds.她的康健迅速好转。原译者之所以将 leap years to boot 翻译成汉语的动词短语“循环往复”,一定是将 leap 视作动词,想固然地将其明白成与前面的 runs on 组成并列谓语了,至于后面的 to boot 什么意思,原译者一定是想固然地将其省略了!为何说原译“想固然地”?!主语 the world 被看作成一个整体,所以谓语动词用单数形式 runs,如果并列谓语的话,动词 leap 是不是也应该酿成单数形式 leaps?!汉语重意合,而英语重形合,所以,通过对英语形式的分析,经常都可以资助我们更好地明白句子。

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既然这里 leap 没有和前面的run一样变单数,说明 leap 不与 runs 并列,而是 with 介词短语内的并列身分:with [365 days, or 12 months in a year,] and [leap years to boot],and 前面的 [ ] 中讲的是一年365天的情况,and 后面的 [ ] 讲的是一年不是365天的情况,即:闰年。另外,如果将 leap 看作是动词(“跳”),一看意思就知道这是一个不及物动词,又怎么能加上宾语 years 呢?!实际上,这里的 leap year 和 to boot 都应该视作为一个单词。

leap year 闰年:one year in every four years, with an extra day (29 February).to boot 是一个习语,表现“再者,除此以外【用于强调所列的最后一点】”:in addition; besides [used for emphasizing the last point in a list of comments or criticisms]The vegetables were overcooked and tasteless, and cold to boot.这些蔬菜烹饪过分,没有味道,而且已经凉透了。2. that also celebrate … 为定语从句,其先行词为 cultures, 关系代词 that 在定语从句中作主语。

稍微提及一下,celebrate(庆祝)的主语一般为 sb,固然也可以是 company, organization, country, community 等,文中culture 的内在是“拥有配合文化的一群人(一个国家、民族、种族、部落等)”,所以可以作 celebrate 的主语。另外,“also”这个词不要忽略了,原译“也有一些文化”把“也”的位置搞错了,应该是“一些文化也会怎么样”,好比我们中国,元旦这一天会放假庆祝,也会在晚些时候(夏历新年时)庆祝新年!这句话按“一些文化庆祝新年”这个结构举行翻译(即:和原译一样,仍然用文化作主语),委曲可以接受,不外,是否可以处置惩罚得更好呢? 3. tell time (钟、表)报时;(人)认表 4. signify [动词] 表现,意味着,意思是:If an event, a sign, or a symbol signifies something, it is a sign of that thing or represents that thing. [V n] [V that]The contrasting approaches to Europe signified a sharp difference between the major parties.对欧洲截然差别的态度讲明两大政党间存在庞大差异。

The symbol displayed outside a restaurant signifies there’s excellent cuisine inside.餐馆外的招牌讲明内里有鲜味佳肴可以享用。原文讲的是“中国新年意味着春天收获季节的开始”:Chinese New Year signifies the beginning of the spring harvest season. 春天不是播种的季节(the spring sowing/seeding season)吗?!这里可能是原作者的笔误,我们可以举行纠正并加上译注。

5. Red envelopes filled with money are presented to family and friends, and typical sweet treats are enjoyed by all.“红包”可以翻译成 red envelope 或 red packet,但如果老外对中国文化完全不相识的话,可能真的会单纯地明白为“红色的信封”、“红色的包裹/袋子”,为了制止明白上的障碍,原文给出了越发准确的译法:red envelopes filled with money.思考:原译将“red envelopes filled with money”回译成“塞上钱的红包”真的好吗?sweet treat 甜点,甜食另外,这句话是并列句,前后两个分句都是被动语态 are presented 和 are enjoyed,翻译成汉语时,如果也接纳被动结构——“红包被派送给某某和甜食被某某享受”,显然不切合汉语的表达习惯,所以建议适当变换形式,将被动语态翻译成主动语态——“人们会向亲朋挚友派送红包,大家聚在一起享受传统甜食”。漫笔最后一句话“Colourful dragons and lantern displays can be seen around the world on this day.”的翻译也是同样的原理。改译:For the most part, the world runs on the Gregorian calendar, with 365 days, or 12 months in a year, and leap years to boot. The year ends on December 31 and begins on January 1, New Year’s Day.世界上大部门国家和地域都是接纳格雷果里历(即我们通常所说的“阳历”或“公历”),一年 12 个月 365 天,此外还会泛起闰年的情况。

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每年开始于 1 月 1 日(即元旦,也称为新年),竣事于 12 月 31 日。But there are several cultures that also celebrate New Year’s Day later in the year. These cultures follow lunar, solar, and other hybrid calendars to tell time.然而,在某些文化中,人们也会在晚些时候庆祝新年。这些文化遵照夏历、阳历及其它混淆历法来计时。Chinese New Year中国新年Also called the Spring Festival or Lunar New Year, Chinese New Year signifies the beginning of the spring harvest season. Red envelopes filled with money are presented to family and friends, and typical sweet treats are enjoyed by all. Colourful dragons and lantern displays can be seen around the world on this day.中国新年,又称春节或夏历新年,意味着春播季节*的开始。

春节期间,人们会向亲朋挚友派送红包,大家聚在一起享受传统甜食。在夏历新年这一天,世界各地都可以看到多姿多彩的舞龙演出和彩灯展览。

-----------------------------------------*译注:原文为“the spring harvest season”(春天收获季节),可能属于原文作者笔误,这里改译为春播季节(the spring sowing/seeding season)。*本文系授权公布,原载于民众号“翻译精读条记”。


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